Events face unique risks. For example, within a span of eight seconds, a mass panic is developed that lead to a stampede that lead to deaths and injuries. Crowd crushing is a source of collapsed rails, stands, barriers, roofs, balconies, walls and gates, riots, fires and police shootings. This implies that crowd management plan should be implemented as a means of risk management.

Crowd Management Plan

Elements required for an effective crowd management plan are:

  • Competent staff achieved through capacity building in crowd management
  • Emergencies and disasters should be well planned and implemented
  • Policies should be set on how to eject unruly, intoxicated, or disruptive fans or spectators
  • Use of signs to promote crowd management.

A crowd manager is charged with the responsibility of overseeing facilities in charge of crowd management. Some of the duties are:

  • Management of the facility and coordination of events
  • Implement crowd management, risk management and disaster plans
  • Asses and manage the behavior of the crowd
  • Offer quality services to patrons of the facility
  • Respond to any complaints
  • Implement policies and procedures of necessity in the facility
  • Resolve issues in regard to ticketing, credentials and seating order and
  • Facilitate as well as coordinate assistance of persons with disabilities.

The crowd management plan developed by the team must meet the following criteria:

  • Check on type of visitors expected and anticipated. This will help in anticipating crowd behavior
  • Previous information about health and safety of the facility should be collected and assessed
  • Cooperate with other organizations like the police and emergency services, the organizations must be reputable and of extensive knowledge and experience
  • Carry out risk assessment for the facility to determine probabilities of handling crowds
  • Inspect and check on crowd safety arrangements regularly and
  • Employ targets for crowd management (Ammon, Southall, and Nagel 196-210).


The safety of a crowd in an event lies in the hands of the facility manager. Effective plans and implementation of crowd management will ensure health and safety at sport events.