Modern slavery relates to a global crime composed of slavery, servitude, forced and compulsory labor and human trafficking (HM Government, 2014). Various organized criminal groups participate in modern slavery where they coerce, deceive, and even force victims to act or live against their will resulting to oppression, servitude, and exploitation (HM Government, 2014). Apparently, human trafficking is the dominant form of modern slavery that includes recruiting, exploiting, deceiving, and coercing victims for purposes of controlling them to live and act against their will. Modern slaves are subject to debt bondage and dread the exploiters who threaten and oppress them and their families. Modern slaves suffer from sexual exploitation, forced and unpaid labor, and forced criminal engagements. In the case of sexual exploitation victims are subject to prostitution or pornography (HM Government, 2014). Forced and compulsory labor includes working against one’s will and working for long hours with little or no pay and in poor working conditions (HM Government, 2014). Servitude entails forcing victims to work as household servants in private homes for little or no pay, long working hours, and poor working conditions (HM Government, 2014).
Apparently, modern slavery compares to slavery in the 18th & 19th century where victims could be children, women, or men. Nevertheless, the number of child victims has risen in modern slavery compared to the slavery in the 18th & 19th century (HM Government, 2014). Moreover, most victims are foreigners transported to a host nation for abuse and exploitation. However, in modern slavery, slaves may not be foreigners since the victims may not move at all as in the case of sexual exploitation (HM Government, 2014). In both cases, the use of force and coercion is dominant. Other similarities include inhuman work and life-conditions, discrimination, physical and psychological mistreatment, injustices, and restriction of fundamental rights.