There are several ways of helping the visually impaired adjust to built environment using 3D models. Good models must have features that enable the visually impaired to maximise on their ability to identify and interact with the space and subspace (Cattaneo et al., 2008). Facilitation of spatial orientation is one the main challenge experienced by both the partially impaired in sight and the blind (Voigt and Martens, 2006). In fact, lack of proper mechanisms that provide comprehensive information concerning the spatial built environment will create problem for the blind and those with partial sightedness, hence the need to adopt and use a 3D tactile model that assists in the facilitation of the spatial orientation for the impaired.

The scales used in tactile model play a significant role of aiding orientation. Ideally, the model provides a mechanisms that enables the visually impaired to easily express and experience structural features within the space provided (Cattaneo et al., 2008). In fact, the model achieves that even in the scale-down orientation or format, therefore, allowing the visually impaired to experiment that particular space while recognising the available spatial elements (Voigt and Martens, 2006). Besides, the model makes it easier for the visually impaired to build an interrelationship with these structural characteristics.

The model using tactile process has the advantage of helping the subjects to improve their cognition of subspaces, the required decisions for any particular situation within that space, and the identification of any spatial process (Cattaneo et al., 2008). besides, the merits of using a 3D tactile process is supported by the fact that the visually impaired have very fine and sensitive tactile facility because of their fine differentiation as opposed to those found in people without visual impairment (Voigt and Martens, 2006).