a). The type of haemolysis seen on the visual is the gamma haemolysis. Gamma haemolysis is when an organism fails to produce haemolysins that result in red blood cells not breaking down (Lippi et al, 2008).
b).The condition the patient in this case study has is called toxic shock syndrome. The most likely microorganism that caused this disease is Group A Streptococcus bacteria also known as Streptococcus pyrogens. The other common cause of toxic shock syndrome is the streptococcus aurius, but it cannot be the cause in this case since it is catalase positive (Lippi et al, 2008). Group A streptococcus has devised methods to interfere with two potent molecules that promote neutrophil recruitment that is the CXC chemokine interleukin and the complement derived anaphylatoxin. This way the immune system’s response to Group A Streptococcus is delayed allowing bacteria to survive (Lippi et al, 2008).
c). Group A streptococcus also produces a protease called Spycep that splits the C-terminus of IL 8 this deactivates the chemokine.
Group A streptococcus releases an endopeptidase, SPCA, which splits human C5a residues within the critical recognition site for leukocyte surface receptors. The streptococcus deactivates human c5a this hinders it from hosting neutrophil chemotaxis (Trotta, Sullivan and Stern, 2003).
Group A streptococcus’ neutrophils also can capture and kill microbes in and out of a cell environment. The ability to capture and kill the organism leads to microorganism’s pathogenicity.
Group A streptococcus also interferes with complement function, and this also contributes to its pathogenicity.
d). Lancefield grouping is a mechanism of grouping streptococci using the carbohydrate composition of bacterial antigens on their cell walls. Haemolysis is formed due to irregular breakdown of red blood cells (Trotta, Sullivan and Stern, 2003).
Alpha haemolysis- this type of haemolysis is by hydrogen peroxide emitted by bacteria that turns blood green.
Beta haemolysis- this kind of haemolysis is by streptolysin, an enzyme secreted by the bacteria that utterly breaks down red blood cells.
e). Gamma haemolysis- In this type of haemolysis no change occurs in the surrounding region.