Question 1

The alternative interpretations provide for a wider understanding of the data that helps to analyze different biological theories to determine the causal relationships that is essential in biology.

Difficulty in designing control field experiments; this implies that biology has many variables and difficult to know what to measure hence researchers find it difficult to determine the field of experiments for the experimental design.

The importance of experimental control; It is important for the biologist to control the experiment so that they prevent experimental bias. As a result, the outside variables do not influence the outcome of the experiment.

Different types of evidence to support theories; Different evidence in biology strengthen the theories. For instance, in the case study all the researches conduct studies to show how natural selection occurs making Darwin’s theory more valid.

Question 2

Harrison hypothesis states that there is full mutation among the moths while Fisher observed mutation in 1 out of 10,000. The two hypotheses are quite contradicting. Harrison would completely disagree with Fisher to expected different results. The rate of mutation in Harrison would, therefore, be 1 out of 1.

Question 3

The light peppered moth stays in lichens and camouflage as compared to the dark moths due to the background hence would survive the environment from the predators. As the environment changes due to the industrial revolution, the lichens die as the dark moths’ camouflages into dark leaves. Hence, against the two background environments, the peppered moth that suits the environment, will survive making a natural selection to occur with ease.

Question 4

The peppered moth showed changes especially on the wings color as compared to butterflies. Since the industrial melanism created a different environment for the study, it was easy for the peppered moth to camouflage, a behavior that suits the study compared to the butterflies.

Question 5

The recapture in Birmingham in the polluted wood is 27% while those at unpolluted wood are 7% while the recapture of the light wings in both the environment is relatively the same. The different result in the dark wing recapture is because the camouflaged moths in the unpolluted wood were eaten by the predators reducing their numbers in the recapture while those in the polluted wood survived more than their counterparts.